We treat eye problems of patients with thyroid disorders including Graves Disease, Hypothyroidism (under active thyroid) and Hyperthyroidism (over active thyroid).
The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the neck inferior to (below) the thyroid cartilage (also known as the Adam's apple in men) and at approximately the same level as the cricoid cartilage. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.
Graves Disease is an autoimmune disease most commonly affecting the thyroid. It causes the thyroid to grow to twice its size or more (goiter), be overactive, with related hyperthyroid symptoms such as increased heartbeat, muscle weakness, disturbed sleep, and irritability. It can also affect the eyes, causing bulging eyes (exophthalmos).
Graves Disease affects other systems of the body, including the skin and reproductive organs. It affects up to 2% of the female population, often appears after childbirth, and has a female:male incidence of 5:1 to 10:1. It has a strong hereditary component; when one identical twin has Graves' disease, the other twin will have it 25% of the time.
Smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke is associated with the eye manifestations but not the thyroid manifestations. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of symptoms, although thyroid hormone tests may be useful, particularly to monitor treatment
Hypothyroidism has several symptoms. Symptoms include feeling slow or tired, drowsiness, poor memory, muscle cramps, dry and course skin, milky discharge from the breasts, husky voice, feeling cold, slow heart rate, difficulty concentrating, weight gain, heavy menstrual flow, infertility, feeling depressed
Hyperthyroidism has several symptoms. Symptoms include fast heart rate, eyes may bulge forward, nervousness, increased sweating, muscle weakness, trembling hands, weight loss, skin changes, increased frequency of bowel movements, decreased menstrual flow and less frequent menstrual flow.
Symptoms of thyroid eye disease may include tearing, pressure sensation behind the eyes, irritation, swelling around the eyes or bulging of the eyes.